Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-02-17 Origin: Site
1. Introduction to Ginseng Extract
Ginseng extract is an extract or concentrated powder obtained by extracting and concentrating the roots or leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
Ginseng is native to the mountains of Northeast China, the East Russia, and the Korean Peninsula. It is a protected plant both in China and Russia. Most of the ginseng in the market are come from plants grown in China, South Korea, Russia, and parts of Japan. Ginseng is a slow growing perennial, and the roots are usually harvested by hand when the plant is five/six years old.
Since ancient times, ginseng has been known as the "King of Herbs". In Western countries, ginseng is also known as "the panacea" ("Panax" means "treatment of all diseases"). Its main active ingredient is ginsenoside, ginseng polysaccharide, sterol, amino acid, etc. Pharmacological studies have shown that ginseng and its main active components have the functions of regulating body metabolism, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, immune system and anti-oxidative stress response. In modern scientific research, the popular efficacy research on ginseng and its active ingredients at home and abroad mainly focuses on relieving physical fatigue, delaying aging, weight management, blood pressure, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and glucose and lipid metabolism.
In ancient China, ginseng has always been a precious medicinal material exclusively enjoyed by the royal family and dignitaries. With the economic development, the improvement of residents' consumption level, and the promotion of ginseng planting technology, ginseng has gradually approached the vision of the general public. Nowadays, ginseng has been widely used in medicines, health products, functional foods and cosmetics. The application of health products is mostly in the form of compound recipes. The ginseng products that have been developed in functional foods include beverages, alcohol, candy, tea, preserved fruits, rice noodles and cakes, etc. The application of cosmetics and daily chemical products mostly use ginseng extract or rare saponin form.
2. Identification of Ginseng Extract
As mentioned above, ginseng belongs to the Araliaceae plant, and other plants belonging to the same family and different species include American ginseng, Panax notoginseng and others. These raw materials are also relatively common herbal medicines. Among them, because of the harsh planting conditions, the raw materials of ginseng root and Panax notoginseng root are the most expensive. Ginseng root/stem and leaf, American ginseng root/stem and leaf, Panax notoginseng root/stem and leaf all contain ginsenosides with similar components. The content of ginsenosides is often detected by the seven saponins Rg1+Re+Rf+Rb1+Rc+Rb2+Rd. The content of American ginseng is often calculated by the sum of the five saponin monomers of Rg1+Re+Rb1+Rc+Rb2+Rd. There are two algorithms for the content of Panax notoginseng. One is calculated by the three saponin monomers of R1+Rg1+Rb1, and the other is calculated by the sum of the five monomers of R1+Rg1+Re+Rb1+Rd. The above detection method for calculating the content by adding the sum of the saponin monomers is high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC for short.
In addition to HPLC, there is also a UV-Vis spectrophotometry method for the detection of saponins content in Araliaceae plant products. The method initially refers to the content detection of in the “Chinese Pharmacopoeia”. This method takes the absorbance value of ginsenoside Re as a reference as a standard curve, and then calculates the total saponins content by the absorbance value of the sample. The results detected by this method are often higher than those detected by HPLC. Because the HPLC detection method only calculates the sum of the contents of several target ginsenosides, and the Araliaceae plants are actually rich in components with similar structures other than these target saponins, they can contribute to the UV absorption value, resulting in the results of UV detection data are often higher than the HPLC data. Taking ginseng leaf extract as an example, the content of standard specifications in the market is in the range of 40-45% by HPLC detection, while the content by UV detection is usually 75-85%.
Compared with the HPLC method, the UV detection method has low equipment cost and relatively simple operation, so it is also widely used. However, because the UV detection method has no specificity, it cannot decompose the components in the sample, which leads to some fake phenomena on the market. For example, using ginseng leaf extract as ginseng root extract with a price difference of nearly 10 times. Using American ginseng extract as ginseng extract. Even American ginseng leaf extract are used as ginseng root extract. So how do we deal with this kind of scam? With nearly ten years of research and development on ginseng extracts, Herb Green Health has fully mastered the ways to deal with different scams. Share two common methods of identifying genuine and fake ginseng as follows:
First, TLC identification
1. Comparison of similarity of chromatographic expansion diagrams
2. The presence or absence of ginsenoside Rf spots: Ginsenoside Rf is a unique saponin component in ginseng. This method can effectively distinguish ginseng extract and from other Araliaceae source extract.